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 Post subject: Some insights to building a high effiency ICE
PostPosted: Sun Mar 15, 2009 10:13 pm 
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When I first got "online" almost a dozen years ago, my main focus was
hot rodding and as I progressed in that area, I found that almost all
the modifications were not only increasing Torque and HorsePower, but
EFFICIENCY as well. One of the last packages I did, gave over a 30%
power increase and the mileage (MPG) went up also! (km/liter) After
tuning the computer, said individual with all the changes start to
finish gained right at 55% more HP and better mileage (efficiency)
at the same time. (On the order of 15%+ efficiency).
He also added performance gearing, which generally reduces MPG.
He went from a 3.27:1 rear end ratio to a 4.10 and still gets better highway MPG,
indicating that the engine efficiency gains exceeded the gearing losses!


These gains are from many reasons, and I have a list of about 12 items
that I was hoping to incorporate into 1 engine rebuild (but some are
usable without a complete rebuild, bolt-ons and the like) and I will
share that complete list here, and likely cross post it elsewhere,
so it can be helpful to others. NOTE that all my items are mainly
in the realm of mechanical and physical combustion efficiency gains,
and there is likely way more to be gained when
one gets into the actual computer tweeks that tuning can provide.
Example: If you "coast" alot when you drive, you get INFINITE fuel efficiency
for the short time you can coast if your injectors shut off during
that "glide" cycle. (google "pulse-glide" driving technique) That
is not even one of my tips, and applies mostly to manual transmission
cars, most automatics I have driven seem to require idling fuel flow
during most conditions of coasting unless you are going down hill on
a pretty steep incline and are experiencing actual "engine braking".

NOW for the Engine Building tips:
1. HARD-BLOK: This stuff is poured into the water jackets of the block, giving greater stability and block strength, at a relatively minor
weight increase. Used by racers who cannot afford a more expensive aftermarket engine block, it has an interesting side effect; It holds
in more heat which can increase Thermal Efficiency with proper heat management techniques. Slightly looser piston ring gaps necessary as
they will expand more. Piston to cylinder wall clearances need increased as well. Fortunately, race engine shops have done this for years
and know all the adjustments required, and can likely supply specs to your shop. The manufacturer can help too. Most piston mfg's have this
data as well, for pistons and rings.

2. COATINGS: Many areas of an engine can have various coatings applied to enhance friction control and heat management.
A. Heat Barrier coatings can be applied to piston tops and combustion chambers, holding heat in for greater expansion and combustion! Keeps heat
where you want it, and out of areas you do not want heat. Metallic/Ceramic coatings are the general type in this category, and further uses are
exhaust ports and turbochargers, to keep exhaust velocities high for better exhaust system dynamics.
B. Friction reduction coatings consist of Teflon (PTFE) and certain metallic coatings such as Molybdenum. (Likely others) These are applied to
wear surfaces and surfaces that wear under low oil pressure situations like crankshaft and connecting rod bearings. These take the load until
oil pressure is reestablished, saving your motor. For normal high wear friction surfaces like piston skirts, OEM's have used teflon inserts for
some time now, but that is about the extent of OEM use.
C. Heat Dispersal coatings are used mostly by racers seeking a cooler inlet temperature in all intake components right up to the cylinder head,
but in many cases a hot inlet charge greatly helps thermal efficiency {T.E.} so we can use a heat dispersant coating in a "heat exchange"
situation where we can cool items such as oil and engine coolant. More in a later section, but remember this item.

3. "Perfectly Tuned Exhaust System": No such thing now, or is there? Even perfectly sized headers and tubing sizes, "stepped" headers and trick collectors only tune for a given RPM band of varying width (depending on how good it was sized and executed) so what can one do to get more out of an Exhaust System? Pardon my mention of a single product, but only one fits the bill for overall RPM (idle to redline) flexibility, and that is the Campbell Acoustic Supercharger or ASC. Google it for a link, I've plugged it enough. But to back up my opinion, I have seen the patent drawings and this system claims to do what every exhaust designer wants, self-tunes dynamically at all RPM's! Here's how, it uses a set of 2 X-Pipe crossovers, linked with an H-type crossover between them. This relieves all vacuum imbalances on either side of the motor (V engine) and self-tunes at any RPM. It's so simple actually, when I saw the patent drawings I had the "EUREKA" moment! A V8 engine has multiple self-tuned torque peaks every 2000 RPM, for example, 2000, 4000, 6000, and (if you can rev that high and not break something) 8000 RPM!
The exhaust system also aids inlet breathing during overlap phase of camming, that is why it is called the ASC, acoustic supercharger. Plus, don't worry about the dreaded "overscavenge", as this system relies on all the scavenge it can induce, but the superior vacuum relieving action mentioned above conveniently rams that "overscavenge" (as a conventional system would do it) BACK INTO THE cylinder using the self-tuned vacuum balancing! NO MOVING PARTS.
Plus, totally balancing "vacuum" in the exhaust side and using a bigger overlap cam reduces pumping losses in the inlet side and "engine braking" (drag) during coasting, which enhances mileage in and of it's own accord, mfg's #'s call for 15-20% increased mileage.
Look it up. ASC.

4. Thermal Management: This is where the 100 MPG carburetors (actually miniature on-board "refineries", not carbs at all) get their increased MPG, through thermal management and catalysts. This part is actually several parts, I'll break them down citing my experiences first.
A. Pre-Heat Inlet Air This works best for Mileage only, hotter air increases T.E. (thermal efficiency) but each 10* F up or down is a slight 1% decrease or increase in power production. This is nearly the ONLY time efficiency (MPG) and HP are opposites in application. However, if you gain maximum efficiency, you will have minimal HP losses anywhere else, and at higher throttle openings, you will have less time to pre-heat your inlet air anyway, and/or you could engineer a COLD AIR inlet for max HP @ WOT (wide open throttle) if desired. Remember the thermal coatings listed above, they can be applied to retain heat where you want it and disperse (radiate) heat where you do not want it, and radiate it into an area where it is more useful at the same time through using heat exchangers (think INTERCOOLER here). Use your imagination, for creative ducting to make an inlet air pre-heater! The most simple method uses and open element air filter behind the radiator, or add shrouds to pull more air directly through the ~200* F radiator. Might need a partial cool air inlet in summer in warmer climates...
B. Pre-Heat FUEL: I know, the carbureted race guys want cold fuel for max HP in a race car, but that was almost strictly to avoid "vapor lock" in the carb bowl. Your EFI system is around 40 PSI in nearly all domestic and most foreign cars, and can be regulated higher if you desire. Warm or hot fuel vaporizes much better, and gets more heat into the combustion chamber, which kicks up the TE even more. HOT SPOTS and old open-chamber designs with older piston designs were the culprit for DETONATION, hot spots form in poorly designed chambers and globs of fuel droplets burned unevenly and lean areas pinged. Modern combustion chambers have pretty much eliminated ping and knock completely, and a good TE effort like we are promoting here further helps our cause, I have seen the engineering data. Hot Rod/Car Craft's publisher does an "ENGINES" magazine once a year, and they built a modern headed (TFS-R) 408 cube Ford Windsor engine, long rods, closed chambers, 11:1 CR and 87 octane gas with FULL high performance spark advance curve (32*) and it made killer TQ, HP and BSFC (efficiency) numbers to boot!!! Plus, that was the nim-rods of HR and CC, not even a good pro-Ford magazine... those guys are really slanted towards GM but the Windsor is a bigger block they could fit all the pieces into (remember Long Rods). You can build a Chevy very much like this, but it is more expensive because you need more custom parts. Remember "LONG RODS" for later...

The GEET Device is basically a complete thermal management system, many swear it works, looks like a good concept to me, but I have no experience with a complete GEET.

There are other variations you can do with Thermal Management, I'll give a very short overview of some ideas (inventions) I have partial plans for.
C. Water-to-Steam Injection for Turbocharger. This really kicks up the boost from small exhaust levels, as steam expands thousands of times in volume when injected as water. However, I did not pursue this much past the point of contacting a turbine mfg. (I had BIG plans!) and they told me I need an ASME (steam license, 4 year degree) to fool with anything over 15 PSI steam, as it is highly explosive and I was looking at levels WAAAY over that, it's very easy to exceed 15 PSI in steam production. Think fairly small diesel, 4 to 6 cylinder with a HUGE turbo, making instant boost and several hundred HP quite easily. The numbers DO work out that way. The block and turbo housing would need to be extremely beefed up, but it is quite doable.
D. Water Injection to cylinder, late-cycle (4 stroke) or 6 cycle engine. Caterpillar does this on 4 strokes, (patented) and Bruce Crower has some developmental patents on the 6 cycle. He's a real jack-*** to talk to, I wanted to get Crower cam grinds, but he would not give me the spec sheet I needed. He wanted to tell me what I needed and we had a very obscure (but modern) engine arrangement that I had more experience dealing with than anyone outside the OEM that built it, and my first cam spec met all emissions and slaughtered anything else any had made for it, (including Crower's effort for a competitor of mine :D ) so there was no way I was going to let him tell me how to do it with no input on my part. But he is extremely smart, I'll give him that. Look up 6 cycle engine. The main twists are that he uses a diesel engine converted to gas, slows the cam down to exactly 1/3 engine RPM (normal is 1/2) and the last 2 strokes or cycles are for water injection and steam exhausting. Everything else except likely a slightly sooner exhaust valve closing for gas exh. cycle should be pretty much the same. It's nearly a "eureka" design as well, simple once you see it.
BONUS: Some Specifics on ALCOHOL (ethanol) use
I "converted" a normal gas engine quite easily to run on E-85 and actually got 1 MPG better! Alcohol has some "advantages", you can (actually MUST) run more timing and compression, if you can increase it (custom build for compression). BMW claims they built an E-85 (not Flex fuel, it was ethanol dedicated only) that gets better mileage on E-85 than their gas version... Ethanol has less BTU's per gallon, but we can overcome some of the deficit with more compression and timing, and good Thermal Management. It loves BOOST too :D I believe with modern combustion chamber design, 15:1 compression is easily doable with Alky. But that is my opinion, based on "octane rating" and what has been achieved with gasoline and modern design. My machinist thought it could work as well.
He has taught me much, more than anyone else in this arena, and he was likely the very first builder of a 408 cubic inch Windsor (using the 400M crank) as he built his first one in 1987 and 2 years later, John Vermeersch, FORD big-wig, (Factory Hotline column, SuperFord Magazine) said it could not be built I'd say my machinist friend is pretty smart, he's like us Free Energy folk, he tries stuff for himself instead of relying on what others say.

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 Post subject: Re: Some insights to building a high effiency ICE
PostPosted: Fri Apr 03, 2009 7:11 am 
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Have you ever read Scauberger work?

He can combust water by converting it in a chamber, using vertical and horizontal swirling inside copper egg shaped chamber, same device used to purify water. If water can be made more explosive, original fuel maybe give more result.

Maybe swirling fuel will improve it's quality. Although it may also be dangerous if it explode before even entering the engine.

Also see his work about flowing water inside copper faster than glass. Water flow even more faster when the pipe is spiral:
http://www.pks.or.at/drinkingwater.html

Since everything flow more naturally in spiral, It should be worth implementing it for air flow of air filter and exhaust. I think this should give much better result than just twisting air in straight pipe like in Mitsubishi Lancer 1990 cyclone engine.


about water to petrol:
http://www.beinsa.info/index.php?option ... d&cid=3945
Quote:
Petrol (Gasoline) From Water
From Spec. Ed. of Mensch und Technik, Vol. 2, 1993, Section 9.0 (Notes from January 1936).
...
Under this reciprocal intensification the introduced substances begin to dissociate, during which process the water temperature slowly drops to +4°C (39.2°F). This temperature level must be maintained by injecting the gases alternately during which the pressure-gauge fluctuates slightly. This is a sign that the water has begun to breathe and pulsate properly. Should over-pressure occur, it is indicative of a progressive development of heat, whereas an underpressure signifies a strong increase in CO2. Here the danger of an explosion is incipient, which can be averted if the temperature of the water can be maintained at +4°C (+39.2°F). This can be regulated simply by adjusting the inflow of oxygen. The addition of very small quantities of oil or other fatty-matter increases the valence of the mixture, but also the danger of explosion. For this reason the introduction of these substances is not advisable at the beginning.

If no reactions of any kind are evident, and if all the ingredients have been completely dissolved, then the mixture should be allowed to stand for about two hours, during which time the temperature must always be maintained at +4°C (+39.2°F). This is most easily achieved in a cellar where such temperatures prevail. Where a good cellar is available, however, the whole thing can be simplified, because the process described above need only be inaugurated with a few alternating injections of O and CO2. The whole can then be left to ferment, a process sufficiently well-understood in the preparation of wine or cider. In this instance, however, in the initial stages of the process, the contents should be stirred around gently with a well-insulated mixing-device on which a zinc or silver scoop has been mounted on one side and a copper one on the other. The external closure can be effected with a mercury seal or by the insertion of a compression ring.

The content of introduced CO2, however, must exceed 90% and proportions similar to those found in the water of all good mountain springs must exist in the end-mixture, although here we are concerned with substantially different products of solution than those found in springwater. In principle, however, there is no difference between them. In this regard it is necessary for those substances that have evolved under the influences of light to be decomposed in darkness and a drop in temperature or vice versa. Through these alternating processes of decomposition, structures of alternate character are formed by mutually opposing influences. This arising and passing away is triggered artificially and reciprocally intensified until a complete solution results, ultimately arriving at the synthesis intended.

With warming and having undergone an end-reaction, the finished mixture has a slight smell of petrol, but does not burn. However, if this mixture is descending piston, then an explosion occurs. We have thereby achieved what we wanted, namely a mixture of explosive water, which is an exceptionally stable and safe substance, but which produces a higher dynamic effect in the pistonengine than the product obtained through the distillation of crude oil we call 'petrol' (gasoline). Electromagnetic ignition is superfluous and by means of this process we have produced a substance that can be used in diesel-engines.


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 Post subject: Re: Some insights to building a high effiency ICE
PostPosted: Sat Jul 04, 2009 8:13 pm 
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Thx sucy, good topic, I may split this off on it's own as it is a bit off-topic for this post, but great info.
Very similar to the GEET device, which can use mostly water and very little fuel.

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